No. of Regions
2,215,000 square kilometres
Population mid year 2020
System of Governance
Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques
King Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud
His Royal Highness Prince Mohammed bin Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud
Weather in Saudi Arabia
June to October
The temperature ranges from 35 to 50 degrees Celsius
February to June
The temperature ranges from 25 to 40 degrees Celsius
November to February
Temperature ranges from 1 to 20 degrees Celsius
October to December
The temperature ranges from 25 to 35 degrees Celsius
History of Saudi Arabia
Alsaud Family originates from the ancient Arab tribe of Banu Hanifa, who belonged to Banu Bakr, son of Wa'il which descended from the large Rabi'ah branch of Adnanite tribes, a tribal confederation historically located in the Najd.
Banu Hanifa tribe's original lands were in Wadi al-irdh, which later came to bear their name (wadi-hanifa) at the dawn of Islam, though in the pre-Islamic era it was known as Wadi Alyamamah.
The House of Al-Saud traces its origins back from ancient times in the heart of the Arabian Peninsula. It links with a deep history and noble descent.
The First Saudi State [1157–1233 AH / 1744–1818 AD]
The first Saudi State establishes in 1157 AH / 1744 AD in Al-Dir'iya, its capital, by Imam Muhammad bin Saud when he met Sheikh Mohammed Ibn Abdul Wahab. Together they formed an alliance and agreed on reforming and cleansing the Islamic faith from distortions based on Quran and Sunnah of the Prophet Mohammad (peace be upon him), the Messenger of Allah.
The imams of the first Saudi state were able to unify the Arabian Peninsula and develop a new era of stability and security by imposing Islamic Law (Sharia) in all aspects of life. As a result of the First Saudi State, many scientists emerged. Also, knowledge and scientific and economic aspects prospered. A lot of institutions and administrative systems establish. The first Saudi State became a state with a great political status as a result of Islamic principles. It has extended its influence to most parts of the Arabian Peninsula. Its rulers followed a balanced policy by the victory of Islam, community service and advancement of its civilisation level.
This First Saudi State ended in In 1233 AH / 1818 AD when Ottoman troops invaded the Arabian Peninsula under the command of Ibrahim, the son of Mohammed Ali Pasha, governor of Egypt.
The Second Saudi State [1240–1309 AH / 1824–1891 AD]
Despite the devastation caused by Muhammad Ali's forces, led by Ibrahim Pasha, in the middle of the Arabian Peninsula, the demolition of Diriyah, and the destruction of many countries, in addition to the spread of fear, Muhammad Ali's forces could not break the elements of the Saudi state. Residents in the urban and rural area have remained loyal to Al Saud family, who founded the first Saudi state. They continued their appreciation for their treatment and their wise leadership; they also went on supporting the Salafi movement. Less than two years after the end of the first Saudi state, leaders of Al Saud emerged once again to re-establish the Saudi state.
The first attempt was in 1235 AH / 1820 AD when Prince Mishari bin Saud tried to re-establish the Saudi rule in Diriyah but lasted only a few months, followed by a successful attempt led by Imam Turki bin Abdullah bin Mohammed bin Saud in 1240 AH / 1824 AD which resulted in the establishment of the second Saudi state and its capital Riyadh.
The second Saudi state continued on the same foundations and pillars upon which the first Saudi state base on, regarding its reliance on Islam, and deployment of security and stability, and the application of Islamic law (Sharia).
The administrative and financial systems were similar to those in the first Saudi state, and arts and sciences prospered in the Second Saudi State.
The Third Saudi State
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia In the 5th of Shawwal 1319 AH / January the 15th, 1902 AD, King Abdulaziz bin Abdulrahman bin Faisal Al Saud managed to recapture Riyadh and return to it with his family.
This historic event is a major turning point in the history of the region because it started a modern Saudi state that managed to unify most of the parts of the Arabian Peninsula.
Founder of KSA
In the 17th of Jumada I 1351 AH / September the 19th 1932 AD a royal decree issued announcing the unification of the country under the name (The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia), starting on Thursday, the 21st of Jumada I 1351 AH / September the 23rd 1932 AD (the first day of Libra). With this announcement, King Abdulaziz launched his efforts to unify the country and establish a State based on the provisions of Quran and the Sunnah. The first of Libra, corresponding to September the 23rd, was proclaimed to become the National Day of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The Kingdom has become a great nation in its achievements, and its status as a regional and international power.
During the reign of King Abdulaziz, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia gained international prominence. It joined many international organisations and signed several important conventions; It was also one of the first countries that signed the Charter of the United Nations in 1364 AH (1945 AD). It also contributed to the establishment of many international organisations aimed at security, stability, and justice, such as the Arab League in 1364 AH (1945 AD)
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia after King Abdulaziz
After the death of King Abdulaziz – may he rest in peace – in the second of Rabia AlAwal 1373 AH corresponding the 9th of November 1953 AD, his sons continued his legacy of high principles in the further development of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
King Saud Bin Abdulaziz 1373–1384 AH (1953–1964 AD)
Saudis pledged allegiance to King Saud in 1373 AH (1953 AD) after the death of his father, King Abdulaziz. During King Saud's period, the Kingdom had witnessed the increase in development in all sectors of society. King Saud Bin Abdulaziz was keen on visiting all the regions in the Kingdom as well as undertaking many foreign trips to enhance cooperation with neighbouring and friendly countries.
King Saud Bin Abdulaziz continued to focus on Islamic and Arabic issues.
King Faisal Bin Abdulaziz 1384 – 1395 AH (1964 – 1975 AD)
Saudis pledged allegiance to King Faisal in 1384 AH (1964 AD) after his brother King Saud had resigned and continued the development progress that his father King Abdulaziz and his brother King Saud had initiated. The Kingdom had witnessed many developments in various sectors in King Faisal’s period.
Due to the growing importance of KSA, King Faisal became the chairman of several international conventions in addition to chairing Islamic and Arabic summits. King Faisal Bin Abdulaziz was able to face many challenges including misleading ideologies on Islam and was a leader in supporting Islamic and Arabic issues, which raised the image of KSA in the international politics and development.
King Khalid Bin Abdulaziz 1395 – 1402 AH (1975 – 1982 AD)
Saudis pledged allegiance to King Khalid Bin Abdulaziz in 1395 AH (1975 AD) after the martyrdom of King Faisal. The King continued the progress made by his predecessors in developing the KSA. During King Khalid’s years, the Kingdom had accomplished significant improvements in various areas of urban development while maintaining the Saudi culture and Islamic principles.
The Kingdom held its high position in Arabic and Islamic politics, due to Saudi Arabia firm leadership and principles, and the maintaining the two Holy Mosques beloved by Muslims.
King Fahad Bin Abdulaziz 1402–1426 AH (1982–2005 AD)
In 1402 AH (1982 AD) The Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques King Fahad Bin Abdulaziz ascended to the throne, following his father's practice of developing the country and society to reach the highest level of civilization. King Fahad's period had witnessed great civil achievements that reflected the advanced growth of the Kingdom, and the prosperity of the Saudi life while continuing to apply the Islamic constitution, and ensured that the country’s security and education systems continued to thrive. Moreover,
The Kingdom has pursued its development in the industrial field and its corresponding infrastructure. In King Fahad's period, the largest historic expansion of the two holy mosques took place, along with the Saudi economy and civilization rising to the highest level. The Saudi foreign policy during King Fahad's period was known for effectiveness and positiveness and finding the right solutions in major Islamic and Arabic matters.
King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz 1426-1436AH /2005-2015AD
On Wednesday 28 of Jumada II 1426 AH (03/08/2005 AD), Saudis pledged allegiance to King Abdullah Bin Abdulaziz as the king of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz supported Islamic solidarity. He has strengthened brotherly ties between Arab countries and has had an active role in peace-making efforts between Arabs. He also played an active role in global economy, United Nations, Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), and the Non-Aligned Movement.
He is known for his generosity in humanitarian and local charitable deeds. He provided great support to science and scientists, the development of education, and the establishment of financial, scientific and technical institutions. He also has visited many Arab, Islamic, and friendly countries in Asia, Europe, the United States and Africa. He attended many Arab and Islamic summits and was keen to achieve peace in the Arab region. His era witnessed many great accomplishments in the field of higher education, public education, justice, health and the expansion of the Prophet's Mosque and the expansion of the Grand Mosque and Al-Mataf.
King Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud 1436AH /2015AD
The Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques, King Salman bin Abdulaziz bin Abdulrahman Al Saud, Saudi Arabia’s seventh king, Prime Minister and Commander-in-Chief of the Military Forces. The pledge of allegiance to King Salman took place on the 23rd of January 2015, and he to continue the journey of development and elevation in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. King Salman undertook a major structural reform and pushed the leaders of the second tier of the youth to prepare leaders for the future.
The Kingdom has witnessed unprecedented economic and social reforms. The kingdom has implemented a "record number of reforms" in one year, according to the World Bank Group, which ranked the Kingdom as one of the top 20 reformist countries in the world and the second among the best countries in the world. And ranked the second in the high income G20 countries, in terms of implementing reforms to improve the business climate.